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Table 1 Characteristics of the unmatched and matched portal non-users and portal users

From: On the effect of electronic patient portal on primary care utilization and appointment adherence

  Non-users   Users Matched Non-users
  n = 15,659   n = 5494 p-value n = 5494 p-value
Time-Invariant Variables
 Age Categories < 0.05   0.78
  0–18 1944 12.4% 57 1.0%   58 1.1%  
  19–30 4328 27.6% 1619 29.5%   1619 29.5%  
  31–45 3764 24.0% 1781 32.4%   1727 31.4%  
  46–64 3755 24.0% 1478 26.9%   1528 27.8%  
  65+ 1868 11.9% 559 10.2%   566 10.3%  
 Sex < 0.05   0.70
  Female 8703 55.6% 3636 66.2%   3656 66.6%  
  Male 6956 44.4% 1858 33.8%   1838 33.4%  
 Race < 0.05   0.95
  Asian 502 3.2% 249 4.5%   233 4.2%  
  Black 4146 26.4% 735 13.4%   716 13.0%  
  Hispanic 70 0.4% 21 0.4%   19 0.3%  
  Other 945 6.0% 394 7.2%   387 7.0%  
  Unknown 795 5.1% 191 3.5%   191 3.5%  
  White 9201 58.8% 3904 71.1%   3948 71.9%  
 Marital Status < 0.05   0.48
  Divorced/Separated 757 4.8% 257 4.7%   254 4.6%  
  Married 4743 30.2% 2440 44.4%   2437 44.4%  
  Other 151 1.0% 36 0.7%   25 0.5%  
  Partner 78 0.5% 39 0.7%   28 0.5%  
  Single 8205 52.5% 2288 41.6%   2311 42.1%  
  Unknown 1356 8.6% 350 6.4%   367 6.7%  
  Widowed 369 2.4% 84 1.5%   72 1.3%  
Time-Varying Variables
 Insurance Type Baseline < 0.05   0.87
  Blue Cross   Blue Shield 6172 39.4% 3125 56.9%   3152 57.4%  
  Commercial/Managed Care 2899 18.5% 1038 18.9%   1024 18.6%  
  Federal/Military 88 0.6% 28 0.5%   29 0.5%  
  Medicaid 3561 22.7% 558 10.2%   551 10.0%  
  Medicare 2300 14.7% 551 10.0%   564 10.3%  
  No Record 36 0.2% 24 0.4%   23 0.4%  
  Other Program 18 0.1% 4 0.1%   0 0.0%  
  Self-pay 580 3.7% 160 2.9%   150 2.7%  
  Worker’s Compensation 5 0.0% 6 0.1%   1 0.0%  
 Active Problem Number Baseline < 0.05   0.83
  “0” 6169 39.4% 1993 36.3%   1999 36.4%  
  “1–4” 6971 44.5% 2537 46.2%   2555 46.5%  
  “5+” 2519 16.1% 964 17.5%   940 17.1%  
 PCP Office Visit Arrived Baseline (per Quarter) 0.21   0.19
  “0” 15,490 99.2% 5449 99.3%   5452 99.2%  
  “1” 71 0.5% 24 0.4%   20 0.4%  
  “2+” 59 0.4% 12 0.2%   22 0.4%  
 PCP Office Visit No-show Baseline (per Quarter) < 0.05   0.43
  “0” 15,524 99.1% 5469 99.5%   5462 99.4%  
  “1+” 135 0.9% 25 0.5%   32 0.6%  
 PCP Office Visit Canceled Baseline (per Quarter) < 0.05   0.06
  “0” 15,379 98.2% 5420 98.7%   5387 98.2%  
  “1+” 280 1.8% 74 1.3%   97 1.8%