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Table 2 HIO Presence and Hospital Participation in Markets with different Hospital and Vendor Characteristics

From: The relationship between hospital and ehr vendor market dynamics on health information organization presence and participation

Variables Linear Probability Model Coefficients for HIO Presence Linear Regression Coefficients for Hospital Participation
Constant −0.232 (0.158) 54.8** (17.4)
Hospital Dynamics
Number of Hospitals (Ref: Low 1–4)
 Moderate (5–8) 0.185* (0.079) −5.2 (5.8)
 High (9+) 0.190** (0.068) −10.9* (4.7)
Hospital Competition (Ref: Non-competitive, HHI= 0.46–1.00)     
 Moderately Competitive (0.25–0.45) − 0.118 (0.063) −8.4 (4.7)
 Highly Competitive (0.00–0.24) −0.252** (0.078) −10.2 (6.0)
For-Profit Hospital Market Share (Ref: Low 0–57%)     
 High For-Profit Hospital Market Share (> 57%) −0.067 (0.053) −5.6 (3.9)
EHR Vendor Dynamics
Number of EHR Vendors (Ref: Low 1–2)
 Moderate (3–4) 0.208** (0.070) 5.4 (5.0)
 High (5+) 0.318*** (0.095) 7.0 (6.6)
Vendor Competition (Ref: Non-competitive, HHI= 0.63–1.00)
 Moderately Competitive (0.38–0.62) 0.033 (0.059) −6.9 (4.5)
 Highly Competitive (0.00–0.37) −0.039 (0.072) −11.2* (5.6)
Alternative HIE Approach (Ref: No)     
 Yes (50–100% of hospitals on Epic) 0.144** (0.046) 1.2 (3.1)
Community Controls
% Hospital Participation in Patient Centered Medical Home and/or Accountable Care Organizations 0.004*** (0.001) 0.1 (0.21)
Avg. % Revenue from Shared Risk Programs 0.004 (0.005) 0.1 (0.3)
% Inpatient Days Medicare 0.002 (0.002) 0.1 (0.2)
% Inpatient Days Medicaid 0.007 (0.004) 0.1 (0.3)
Hospital Beds per 1000 residents −0.001 (0.002) 0.1 (0.2)
FTE Hospital Staff per 1000 residents 0.000 (0.000) 0.0 (0.0)
Percentage of Hospitals in Urban Settings 0.005*** (0.001) 0.0 (0.1)
Number of Physicians (Weighted County Average) −0.000* (0.000) 0.0 (0.0)
State Fixed Effects Included   Included  
n 469   298  
R2 0.44   0.16  
  1. Note: * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001. All models include state fixed effects. Robust standard error in parentheses