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Table 1 Characteristics of markets by HIO presence and level of hospital participation

From: The relationship between hospital and ehr vendor market dynamics on health information organization presence and participation

Variables All Areas No HIO Presence HIO Presence   Hospital Participation
Number of Markets 469 171 298   298  
Categorical Variables n(%) n(%) n(%) P-value Mean (SD) P-value
Number of Hospitals     < 0.001   < 0.001
 Low (1–4) 175 (37%) 106 (62%) 69 (23%)   58% (32)  
 Moderate (5–8) 128 (27%) 36 (21%) 92 (31%)   41% (24)  
 High (9+) 166 (35%) 29 (17%) 137 (46%)   47% (25)  
 Total 469 171 198    
Hospital Competition (HHI)     < 0.001   0.33
 Non-Competitive (0.46–1.00) 127 (27%) 67 (39%) 60 (20%)   59% (32)  
 Moderately Competitive (0.25–0.45) 166 (35%) 62 (36%) 104 (35%)   45% (26)  
 Highly Competitive (0.00–0.24) 176 (37%) 42 (25%) 134 (45%)   43% (20)  
 Total 469 171 298    
For-Profit Hospital Marketshare     0.003    < 0.001
 Low For-Profit Marketshare (0–57%) 357 (76%) 117 (68%) 240 (81%)   34% (34)  
 High For-Profit Marketshare (> 57%) 112 (24%) 54 (32%) 58 (19%)   18% (18)  
 Total 469 171 298    
No. of EHR Vendors     < 0.001   < 0.001
 Low (1–2) 141 (30%) 21 (12%) 120 (40%)   55% (32)  
 Moderate (3–4) 146 (31%) 45 (26%) 101 (34%)   44% (25)  
 High (5+) 182 (39%) 105 (61%) 77 (26%)   44% (19)  
 Total 469 171 298    
Vendor Competition (HHI)     < 0.001   0.35
 Non-Competitive (0.63–1.00) 144 (31%) 76 (44%) 68 (23%)   57% (31)  
 Moderately Competitive (0.38–0.62) 162 (35%) 57 (33%) 105 (35%)   46% (25)  
 Highly Competitive (0.00–0.37) 163 (35%) 38 (22%) 125 (42%)   42% (20)  
 Total 469 171 298    
Alternative HIE Approach (%)       
 No (0–49% of hospitals on Epic) 256 (55%) 135 (79%) 121 (41%) < 0.001 44% (27) < 0.001
 Yes (50–100% of hospitals on Epic) 213 (45%) 36 (21%) 177 (59%)   49% (24)  
 Total 469 171 298    
Continuous Variables Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) P-value Coefficient (SE) P-value
Number of HSAs 6 (6) 5 (4) 6 (6) 0.018 0.16 (0.23) 0.46
% HIO Participation 30 (30) 0 (0) 47 (25) < 0.001   
% Hospital Participation in Patient Centered Medical Home and/or Accountable Care Organizations 27 (27) 17 (26) 33 (25) < 0.001 0.003 (0.001) < 0.001
% Revenue Shared Risk Programs 1 (4) 1 (3) 2 (4) 0.062 0.12 (0.33) 0.72
% Inpatient Days Medicare 52 (21) 53 (15) 51 (9) 0.088 0.18 (0.16) 0.25
% Inpatient Days Medicaid 19 (9) 18 (10) 19 (8) 0.066 0.32 (0.19) 0.10
Hospital Beds per 1000 residents 24 (31) 15 (16) 29 (36) < 0.001 −0.09 (0.04) 0.03
FTE Hospital Staff per 1000 residents 164 (197) 98 (91) 202 (229) < 0.001 −0.01 (0.01) 0.12
Percentage of Hospitals in Urban Settings 62 (35) 46 (39) 72 (29) < 0.001 −0.04 (0.05) 0.50
Number of Physicians (Weighted County Average) 409 (769) 260 (737) 495 (775) 0.001 0.00 (0.00) 0.65
  1. HIO Health Information Organization,HHI Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, EHR Electronic Health Record, HSA Health Service Area, FTE Full Time Equivalent, SD Standard Deviation, SE Standard Error
  2. Note: Percentages may not add up to 100% due to rounding; p-values based on ANOVA for categorical variables and linear regression for continuous variables