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Table 3 Accordance of the tool’s disease assessments and the physicians’ findings ordered to the respective treatment recommendation

From: A mobile phone based tool to identify symptoms of common childhood diseases in Ghana: development and evaluation of the integrated clinical algorithm in a cross-sectional study

  Agreement (%) Cohen’s kappa p-valuea Sensitivity
(%)
Specificity
(%)
PPVb NPVc Prevalenced
(%)
A
 Neurological emergency 77.2 − 0.01 0.71 0 77.5 0 99.5 0.4
 Severe RTIe 84.0 0.3 < 0.01 54.6 87.0 30.0 94.9 9.3
 GI-infectionf with severe dehydration 93.3 0.08 0.09 16.7 95.2 8.3 97.8 2.5
 Inability to drink/breastfeed n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
 Severe febrile disease n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
B
 Febrile disease 78.9 0.51 < 0.01 83.2 68.6 86.3 63.2 70.5
 Moderate RTIe 63.7 0.05 0.21 27.3 77.8 32.1 73.5 27.9
 GI-infectionf with some dehydration 81.9 0.25 < 0.01 66.7 82.9 20.8 97.4 6.3
 Dysentery 84.0 0.17 < 0.01 71.4 84.3 12.2 99.0 3.0
C
 Mild RTIe 62.5 −0.07 0.87 17.0 75.5 16.7 76.0 22.4
 GI-infectionf with no dehydration 73.4 0.2 < 0.01 27.4 89.7 48.6 77.7 26.2
  1. A = requiring emergency treatment
  2. B = requiring causal treatment
  3. C = requiring home care
  4. ap-value for Cohen’s Kappa
  5. bPPV = positive predictive value
  6. cNPV = negative predictive value
  7. dPrevalence of the disease assessments made by the physicians
  8. eRTI = respiratory tract infection
  9. fGI-infection = gastrointestinal infection