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Table 2 Examples of generated heuristic rules from Chinese clinical texts

From: A pattern learning-based method for temporal expression extraction and normalization from multi-lingual heterogeneous clinical texts

Language Expression Representation format Heuristic rule
Chinese 约10天 [SLOT: prefix][SLOT: num][SLOT: day] (‘+prefix+’)(\d{1,6})(‘+ dmy+’)
2014年10月5日 [SLOT: num][SLOT: year][SLOT: num][SLOT: month][SLOT: num] [SLOT: day] (\d{1,4}[年]\d{1,2}[月]\d{1,2}[日])
约一个周期 [SLOT: prefix](LIST: 半|一|二|两|三|四|五|六|七|八|九|十|十一|十二|十三|十四|十五|二十|三十) < S: 个 > [SLOT: day] (‘+prefix+’)(‘+num+’)(个)(‘+dmy+’)
第7、9、14天 [SLOT: prefix][SLOT: num] < SM: 、 > [SLOT: num] < SM: 、 > [SLOT: num][SLOT: day] (‘+prefix+’)(((\d{1,6})(‘+u’、‘+’)){1,5}(\d{1,6})(‘+dmy+’))
English 2014–11-04 [SLOT: year] < SM: - > [SLOT: month] < SM: - > [SLOT: day] d{1,4}) r’(− |-| -|- |)(‘+[month] + r’(− |-| -|- |)\ d{1,2}
November 2nd, 2016 [SLOT: month] < SM: >[SLOT: day](LIST: st, nd, rd, th) < SM:,> < SM: > [SLOT: year] (‘+[month]+’(− |-| -|- |)\ d{1,2}(st|nd|rd|th)(, |,|)\ d{1,4})
May 3–5, 2013 [SLOT: month] < SM: >[SLOT: day] < SM:- > [SLOT: day] < SM:,> < SM: > [SLOT: year] (‘+[month] + r’ \d{1,2}(− |-| -|-)\ d{1,2}(, |,|)\ d{2,4})
37 years old <RULE: negative> If context_distance([SLOT: num], [SLOT: age]) < n; Then filter out