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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the patient cohort

From: FAM-FACE-SG: a score for risk stratification of frequent hospital admitters

  Model Derivation Dataset Model Validation Dataset
Variable All patients (n = 17670) Frequent admitters (n = 3061) Non frequent admitters (n = 14609) All patients (n = 7574) Frequent admitters (n = 1261) Non frequent admitters (n = 6313)
Patient Demographics
 Age, Mean (SD) 58.6 (17.92) 65.15 (15.15) 57.26 (18.14) 58.3 (17.93) 64.53 (15.17) 57.06 (18.18)
 Gender, Male (%) 9127 (51.6%) 1579 (52.6%) 7548 (51.5%) 3929 (51.9%) 680 (53.9%) 3249 (51.5%)
Ethnicity
 Chinese (%) 12772 (72.3%) 2234 (74.4%) 10538 (71.8%) 5417 (71.5%) 919 (72.9%) 4498 (71.3%)
 Indian (%) 1745 (9.9%) 281 (9.4%) 1464 (10%) 776 (10.2%) 123 (9.8%) 653 (10.3%)
 Malay (%) 2089 (11.8%) 394 (13.1%) 1695 (11.6%) 924 (12.2%) 179 (14.2%) 745 (11.8%)
 Others (%) 1065 (6%) 93 (3.1%) 972 (6.6%) 456 (6%) 40 (3.2%) 416 (6.6%)
Indicators of Socioeconomic Status
 Required financial assistance using Medifund (%) 248 (1.4%) 86 (2.9%) 162 (1.1%) 102 (1.3%) 35 (2.8%) 67 (1.1%)
 Stayed in a subsidized ward during index admission (%) 13487 (76.3%) 2688 (89.5%) 10799 (73.6%) 5807 (76.7%) 1140 (90.4%) 4667 (73.9%)
Past Healthcare Utilization
 ED visits (6 month before index admission), Mean (SD) 0.37 (0.91) 0.67 (1.55) 0.31 (0.69) 0.36 (0.92) 0.69 (1.64) 0.3 (0.68)
 Specialist Clinic visits (1 year before index admission), Mean (SD) 2.24 (5.38) 4.25 (7.68) 1.83 (4.67) 2.14 (5.28) 4.16 (7.74) 1.74 (4.52)
 Hospital admissions (1 year before index admission), Mean (SD) 0.33 (1.02) 0.95 (1.83) 0.21 (0.7) 0.34 (1.14) 1.04 (2.2) 0.2 (0.68)
Markers of Acute Illness Burden
 Index admission was urgent (%) 13501 (76.4%) 2450 (81.6%) 11051 (75.3%) 5764 (76.1%) 992 (78.7%) 4772 (75.6%)
 Required second line antibiotics during index admission (%) 860 (4.9%) 202 (6.7%) 658 (4.5%) 349 (4.6%) 80 (6.3%) 269 (4.3%)
 Required inpatient dialysis during index admission (%) 580 (3.3%) 290 (9.7%) 290 (2%) 256 (3.4%) 126 (10%) 130 (2.1%)
 Required intravenous Furosemide 40 mg and above during index admission (%) 1038 (5.9%) 355 (11.8%) 683 (4.7%) 435 (5.7%) 143 (11.3%) 292 (4.6%)
 Required isolation during index admission (%) 216 (1.2%) 54 (1.8%) 162 (1.1%) 98 (1.3%) 21 (1.7%) 77 (1.2%)
 Length of stay of index admission, Mean (SD) 5.54 (11.16) 7.49 (10.88) 5.14 (11.17) 5.55 (12.29) 7.56 (11.82) 5.15 (12.35)
 Charlson Comorbidity Indexa, Mean (SD) 1.51 (2.44) 3.62 (3.03) 1.08 (2.05) 1.45 (2.39) 3.56 (3) 1.03 (2)
Medical Comorbiditiesb
 Stroke 291 (1.6%) 49 (1.6%) 242 (1.6%) 124 (1.6%) 20 (1.6%) 104 (1.6%)
 Metastatic Disease 1924 (10.9%) 349 (11.6%) 1575 (10.7%) 831 (11%) 156 (12.4%) 675 (10.7%)
 Non-metastatic malignancy 3116 (17.6%) 530 (17.7%) 2586 (17.6%) 1352 (17.9%) 237 (18.8%) 1115 (17.7%)
 Peripheral Vascular Disease 717 (4.1%) 123 (4.1%) 594 (4%) 321 (4.2%) 48 (3.8%) 273 (4.3%)
 Heart Failure or Fluid Overload 2146 (12.1%) 392 (13.1%) 1754 (12%) 937 (12.4%) 140 (11.1%) 797 (12.6%)
 Pressure Ulcer 583 (3.3%) 106 (3.5%) 477 (3.3%) 259 (3.4%) 45 (3.6%) 214 (3.4%)
 Thromboembolism 1141 (6.5%) 224 (7.5%) 917 (6.3%) 510 (6.7%) 91 (7.2%) 419 (6.6%)
 Spine Fracture 488 (2.8%) 92 (3.1%) 396 (2.7%) 198 (2.6%) 39 (3.1%) 159 (2.5%)
 Coronary Heart Disease or Myocardial Infarction 2624 (14.8%) 504 (16.8%) 2120 (14.5%) 1151 (15.2%) 199 (15.8%) 952 (15.1%)
 Hip Fracture 375 (2.1%) 60 (2%) 315 (2.1%) 144 (1.9%) 28 (2.2%) 116 (1.8%)
 Atrial Fibrillation 1348 (7.6%) 256 (8.5%) 1092 (7.4%) 612 (8.1%) 98 (7.8%) 514 (8.1%)
 Epilepsy 180 (1%) 31 (1%) 149 (1%) 79 (1%) 11 (0.9%) 68 (1.1%)
 Parkinsonism 284 (1.6%) 60 (2%) 224 (1.5%) 124 (1.6%) 28 (2.2%) 96 (1.5%)
 Anxiety 170 (1%) 23 (0.8%) 147 (1%) 82 (1.1%) 12 (1%) 70 (1.1%)
 Bipolar Disorder 48 (0.3%) 9 (0.3%) 39 (0.3%) 24 (0.3%) 3 (0.2%) 21 (0.3%)
 Collagen Vascular Disease 270 (1.5%) 40 (1.3%) 230 (1.6%) 107 (1.4%) 14 (1.1%) 93 (1.5%)
 Dementia 616 (3.5%) 99 (3.3%) 517 (3.5%) 289 (3.8%) 49 (3.9%) 240 (3.8%)
 Hypothyroidism 406 (2.3%) 62 (2.1%) 344 (2.3%) 183 (2.4%) 26 (2.1%) 157 (2.5%)
 Chronic Kidney Disease, Stages 1–4 3075 (17.4%) 554 (18.5%) 2521 (17.2%) 1318 (17.4%) 217 (17.2%) 1101 (17.4%)
 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 503 (2.8%) 86 (2.9%) 417 (2.8%) 213 (2.8%) 26 (2.1%) 187 (3%)
 Osteoarthritis 1499 (8.5%) 247 (8.2%) 1252 (8.5%) 657 (8.7%) 101 (8%) 556 (8.8%)
 Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy 856 (4.8%) 138 (4.6%) 718 (4.9%) 373 (4.9%) 59 (4.7%) 314 (5%)
 Asthma 536 (3%) 99 (3.3%) 437 (3%) 212 (2.8%) 33 (2.6%) 179 (2.8%)
 Hyperlipidemia 5026 (28.4%) 900 (30%) 4126 (28.1%) 2186 (28.9%) 366 (29%) 1820 (28.8%)
 Hypertension 7051 (39.9%) 1240 (41.3%) 5811 (39.6%) 3029 (40%) 493 (39.1%) 2536 (40.2%)
 Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 5 or End Stage Renal Failure 2384 (13.5%) 441 (14.7%) 1943 (13.2%) 977 (12.9%) 150 (11.9%) 827 (13.1%)
 Diabetes 4388 (24.8%) 779 (25.9%) 3609 (24.6%) 1908 (25.2%) 319 (25.3%) 1589 (25.2%)
 History of Alcoholism 297 (1.7%) 60 (2%) 237 (1.6%) 130 (1.7%) 30 (2.4%) 100 (1.6%)
 Treatment with anti-depressantsc 1753 (9.9%) 706 (23.5%) 1047 (7.1%) 726 (9.6%) 298 (23.6%) 428 (6.8%)
  1. FA frequent admitters
  2. aBased on ICD codes of index admission
  3. bBased on ICD codes in the preceding seven years
  4. cBased on discharge and outpatient prescriptions in the preceding one year