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Table 5 Crude odds ratios for each combination of Kampo formulas. To measure the effect size of each predictive variable, we performed multinomial logistic regression. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated using the R package “nnet”. A value of 1 for the dependent variable (case) denotes the Kampo formula listed in the upper row. A value of 0 for the dependent variable (control) denotes the Kampo formula listed in the bottom row. Item names with (Bi) means binary questions, and without (Bi) means questions with visual analogue scales

From: Predicting Japanese Kampo formulas by analyzing database of medical records: a preliminary observational study

Item name Crude odds ratio (95 % confidence intervals)
1 (case)
0 (control)
Hachimijiogan vs Kamishoyosan Kamishoyosan vs Keishikaryukotsuboreito Hachimijiogan vs Keishikaryukotsuboreito
Subjective symptoms
 Appetite
  Appetite loss (Bi) 1.294 (0.207, 8.099) 0.091 (0.019, 0.446) 0.118 (0.030, 0.463)
  Good appetite (Bi) 1.564 (0.427, 5.722) 1.476 (0.254, 8.578) 2.309 (0.450, 11.848)
 Speed of the meal
  Slow speed of the meal (Bi) 1.215 (0.443, 3.336) 0.947 (0.295, 3.046) 1.151 (0.381, 3.476)
  Fast speed of the meal (Bi) 1.028 (0.398, 2.659) 1.250 (0.404, 3.864) 1.286 (0.431, 3.835)
 Difficulty falling asleep 3.755 (1.231, 11.453) 0.175 (0.052, 0.591) 0.657 (0.234, 1.844)
 Arousal during sleep 1.912 (0.663, 5.517) 0.158 (0.049, 0.510) 0.302 (0.104, 0.882)
 Early-morning awakening 6.605 (1.708, 25.547) 0.051 (0.012, 0.218) 0.340 (0.117, 0.991)
 I dream frequently (Bi) 0.378 (0.136, 1.050) 0.535 (0.208, 1.372) 0.202 (0.071, 0.579)
 Single dose of urine large (Bi) 0.846 (0.114, 6.256) 1.455 (0.126, 16.743) 1.231 (0.107, 14.128)
 Single dose of urine low (Bi) 2.114 (0.732, 6.107) 0.675 (0.197, 2.315) 1.427 (0.483, 4.212)
 Difficulty urinating 14.328 (0.269, 762.157) 62249680000.000 (0.000, Inf) 1029688000000.000 (0.000, Inf)
 Urination pain 13075.100 (0.000, Inf) 0.049 (0.000, Inf) 428.912 (0.000, Inf)
 Urine leakage 2.761 (0.258, 29.497) 8.399 (0.143, 492.448) 23.184 (0.463, 1161.637)
 Enuresis 1.000 (1.000, 1.000) 1.000 (1.000, 1.000) 1.000 (1.000, 1.000)
 Hard stool (Bi) 0.833 (0.249, 2.786) 2.325 (0.439, 12.321) 1.938 (0.367, 10.219)
 Small and round stool (Bi) 0.326 (0.124, 0.856) 1.981 (0.706, 5.559) 0.646 (0.210, 1.985)
 Soft stool (Bi) 0.508 (0.194, 1.328) 0.788 (0.299, 2.073) 0.400 (0.145, 1.107)
 Diarrhea 0.664 (0.055, 8.056) 0.308 (0.032, 2.974) 0.204 (0.020, 2.116)
 Hard to stool (Bi) 1.905 (0.652, 5.561) 0.840 (0.233, 3.025) 1.600 (0.508, 5.041)
 Hemorrhoid 2.321 (0.191, 28.221) 0.313 (0.022, 4.417) 0.726 (0.078, 6.721)
 Anal prolapse 63127200000.000 (0.000, Inf) 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 10.162 (0.019, 5537.952)
 Bloody stool 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 1.265 (0.016, 97.879) 0.000 (0.000, Inf)
 Taking laxatives (Bi) 1.515 (0.505, 4.547) 1.087 (0.281, 4.205) 1.648 (0.472, 5.755)
 Depressed mood 0.048 (0.010, 0.225) 0.836 (0.215, 3.248) 0.040 (0.008, 0.208)
 Forgetfullness 0.816 (0.184, 3.615) 0.237 (0.049, 1.132) 0.193 (0.042, 0.895)
 Irritated 0.076 (0.018, 0.318) 10.981 (2.154, 55.976) 0.834 (0.151, 4.604)
 Dry skin 0.330 (0.103, 1.062) 1.259 (0.364, 4.346) 0.416 (0.115, 1.498)
 Itchy skin 0.951 (0.294, 3.082) 1.612 (0.401, 6.488) 1.534 (0.396, 5.946)
 Acne 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 1.581 (0.036, 68.993) 0.000 (0.000, Inf)
 Blot 0.276 (0.080, 0.958) 1.240 (0.358, 4.300) 0.343 (0.088, 1.333)
 Urticaria 0.154 (0.020, 1.157) 3.170 (0.415, 24.193) 0.488 (0.043, 5.517)
 Wart 0.508 (0.052, 4.934) 0.960 (0.102, 9.032) 0.488 (0.043, 5.562)
 Athlete’s foot 1.611 (0.171, 15.202) 1.042 (0.067, 16.120) 1.678 (0.135, 20.941)
 Brittle nails 0.312 (0.089, 1.103) 1.561 (0.417, 5.838) 0.488 (0.119, 2.004)
 Get tired easily 0.250 (0.084, 0.738) 0.519 (0.135, 1.994) 0.129 (0.035, 0.475)
 Easy to sweat 0.256 (0.086, 0.763) 1.847 (0.583, 5.856) 0.472 (0.140, 1.598)
 Night sweats 0.367 (0.053, 2.539) 1.416 (0.194, 10.350) 0.520 (0.059, 4.598)
 Hot flush 0.022 (0.003, 0.182) 4.207 (1.003, 17.643) 0.091 (0.009, 0.896)
 Heat intolerance 0.348 (0.110, 1.106) 2.768 (0.729, 10.504) 0.964 (0.243, 3.825)
 Cold intolerance 0.951 (0.364, 2.483) 0.527 (0.180, 1.545) 0.501 (0.177, 1.423)
 Attenuation of sexual desire 0.807 (0.078, 8.353) 0.222 (0.030, 1.624) 0.179 (0.024, 1.327)
 Impotence (male) 10052440000.000 (0.000, Inf) 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 8.044 (0.030, 2144.688)
 Neck stiffness 0.220 (0.074, 0.652) 1.142 (0.321, 4.066) 0.251 (0.077, 0.823)
 Shoulder stiffness 0.356 (0.119, 1.062) 0.671 (0.175, 2.563) 0.239 (0.067, 0.852)
 Back stiffness 0.695 (0.250, 1.932) 0.539 (0.177, 1.645) 0.375 (0.125, 1.127)
 Lower back stiffness 0.798 (0.290, 2.195) 0.743 (0.244, 2.258) 0.592 (0.199, 1.763)
 Facial pain 0.077 (0.000, Inf) 0.001 (0.000, Inf) 0.001 (0.000, Inf)
 Hand pain 1.879 (0.276, 12.784) 0.201 (0.030, 1.366) 0.378 (0.074, 1.932)
 Foot pain 6.765 (1.390, 32.926) 0.374 (0.060, 2.339) 2.529 (0.615, 10.389)
 Shoulder pain 0.360 (0.086, 1.504) 0.497 (0.142, 1.746) 0.179 (0.043, 0.754)
 Back pain 0.590 (0.102, 3.413) 0.734 (0.132, 4.071) 0.433 (0.071, 2.641)
 Hip pain 2.550 (0.930, 6.989) 0.863 (0.264, 2.825) 2.200 (0.732, 6.607)
 Knee pain 4.040 (0.981, 16.643) 2.473 (0.326, 18.786) 9.990 (1.516, 65.813)
 Numbness face 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 0.480 (0.039, 5.954) 0.000 (0.000, Inf)
 Numbness hands 1.681 (0.457, 6.179) 1.257 (0.253, 6.243) 2.113 (0.470, 9.493)
 Numbness legs 4.200 (1.272, 13.868) 1.025 (0.224, 4.683) 4.304 (1.116, 16.605)
 Numbness back 0.166 (0.001, 21.502) 0.393 (0.024, 6.450) 0.065 (0.001, 7.255)
 Trembling face 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 6455194000000.000 (0.000, Inf) 0.000 (0.000, Inf)
 Trembling hands 2.850 (0.152, 53.518) 0.083 (0.005, 1.464) 0.236 (0.024, 2.331)
 Trembling legs 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 21.730 (0.011, 43198.600) 0.000 (0.000, Inf)
 Hie general 0.531 (0.169, 1.668) 1.439 (0.407, 5.079) 0.764 (0.206, 2.830)
 Hie hands 0.522 (0.141, 1.931) 0.557 (0.159, 1.947) 0.291 (0.077, 1.098)
 Hie legs 1.683 (0.630, 4.492) 0.623 (0.204, 1.903) 1.049 (0.352, 3.123)
 Hie lower back 1.474 (0.358, 6.075) 0.550 (0.118, 2.562) 0.811 (0.200, 3.291)
 Heat face 0.021 (0.004, 0.121) 2.401 (0.724, 7.959) 0.049 (0.008, 0.311)
 Heat hands 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 5.293 (0.280, 99.894) 0.000 (0.000, Inf)
 Heat legs 0.166 (0.013, 2.050) 12.968 (0.202, 831.143) 2.150 (0.023, 205.044)
 Edema face 0.698 (0.141, 3.450) 4.373 (0.392, 48.772) 3.053 (0.271, 34.455)
 Edema hands 0.920 (0.126, 6.713) 9.190 (0.226, 373.346) 8.452 (0.215, 332.751)
 Edema legs 0.691 (0.246, 1.937) 1.388 (0.429, 4.491) 0.959 (0.300, 3.061)
 Headache 0.132 (0.032, 0.545) 3.796 (0.856, 16.839) 0.501 (0.096, 2.605)
 Sluggishness 0.176 (0.033, 0.943) 0.700 (0.171, 2.868) 0.123 (0.022, 0.701)
 Vertigo 0.747 (0.206, 2.707) 0.938 (0.229, 3.832) 0.701 (0.173, 2.839)
 Lightheadedness 0.403 (0.085, 1.906) 0.960 (0.198, 4.648) 0.387 (0.072, 2.066)
 Dandruff 94.688 (0.100, 89677.910) 0.008 (0.000, 9.612) 0.826 (0.038, 17.818)
 Hair loss 0.286 (0.069, 1.187) 1.316 (0.328, 5.280) 0.376 (0.078, 1.804)
 Decreased visual acuity 0.603 (0.194, 1.877) 0.779 (0.228, 2.667) 0.470 (0.138, 1.604)
 Eyestrain 0.215 (0.074, 0.627) 1.754 (0.540, 5.702) 0.377 (0.119, 1.189)
 Blurred vision 0.616 (0.203, 1.867) 1.718 (0.477, 6.183) 1.058 (0.295, 3.794)
 Bleary eyes 0.110 (0.033, 0.367) 2.698 (0.789, 9.228) 0.297 (0.080, 1.102)
 Dark circles of the eyes 0.206 (0.049, 0.862) 1.207 (0.344, 4.235) 0.248 (0.053, 1.161)
 Sneezing 0.712 (0.162, 3.126) 3.991 (0.505, 31.530) 2.840 (0.361, 22.364)
 White nasal discharge (Bi) 0.612 (0.208, 1.799) 0.760 (0.258, 2.236) 0.465 (0.151, 1.433)
 Yellow nasal discharge (Bi) 1.732 (0.152, 19.747) 1712.672 (0.000, Inf) 2964.441 (0.000, Inf)
 Post nasal drip 0.934 (0.197, 4.425) 0.404 (0.086, 1.897) 0.377 (0.084, 1.691)
 Stuffy nose 2.178 (0.511, 9.288) 0.374 (0.078, 1.807) 0.815 (0.207, 3.217)
 Nosebleed 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 0.152 (0.001, 29.264) 0.000 (0.000, Inf)
 Mouth bitter 0.536 (0.073, 3.919) 0.770 (0.111, 5.315) 0.413 (0.052, 3.257)
 Saliva comes out 0.316 (0.007, 15.076) 86710.230 (0.000, Inf) 27731.080 (0.000, Inf)
 Throat pain 0.721 (0.165, 3.142) 0.873 (0.181, 4.223) 0.630 (0.130, 3.057)
 Throat jams 0.029 (0.002, 0.499) 4.805 (0.583, 39.619) 0.141 (0.006, 3.387)
 Thirsty 1.197 (0.377, 3.801) 0.960 (0.255, 3.613) 1.149 (0.323, 4.090)
 Dry mouth 0.557 (0.167, 1.859) 0.707 (0.202, 2.478) 0.394 (0.110, 1.414)
 Dry lips 0.757 (0.189, 3.030) 0.450 (0.112, 1.811) 0.340 (0.085, 1.365)
 Take water often 0.624 (0.198, 1.959) 1.286 (0.357, 4.636) 0.802 (0.223, 2.887)
 Tinnitus 1.023 (0.374, 2.796) 1.213 (0.374, 3.933) 1.241 (0.397, 3.876)
 Hearing loss 6.628 (1.557, 28.215) 0.634 (0.106, 3.811) 4.205 (0.970, 18.224)
 Cough 0.323 (0.032, 3.239) 3.661 (0.227, 59.010) 1.182 (0.063, 22.259)
 White sputum (Bi) 4.398 (0.899, 21.512) 0.205 (0.038, 1.087) 0.900 (0.288, 2.808)
 Yellow sputum (Bi) 2.647 (0.266, 26.361) 0.344 (0.030, 3.966) 0.912 (0.144, 5.764)
 Asthma 0.068 (0.001, 4.411) 687350.400 (0.000, Inf) 46587.550 (0.000, Inf)
 Shortness of breath 1.714 (0.370, 7.932) 0.199 (0.042, 0.948) 0.341 (0.086, 1.357)
 Palpitation 0.107 (0.021, 0.545) 0.437 (0.116, 1.648) 0.047 (0.009, 0.254)
 Chest pain 1.960 (0.181, 21.196) 0.168 (0.016, 1.737) 0.329 (0.047, 2.317)
 Burp 0.025 (0.001, 0.949) 1.456 (0.237, 8.942) 0.037 (0.001, 1.542)
 Heartburn 0.857 (0.160, 4.580) 1.748 (0.229, 13.308) 1.497 (0.203, 11.033)
 Epigastric jamming discomfort 0.889 (0.109, 7.221) 0.285 (0.042, 1.940) 0.253 (0.039, 1.653)
 Nausea 0.165 (0.002, 16.148) 0.124 (0.007, 2.196) 0.021 (0.000, 1.437)
 Vomiting 0.007 (0.000, Inf) 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 0.000 (0.000, Inf)
 Motion sickness 0.498 (0.081, 3.067) 1.386 (0.198, 9.705) 0.690 (0.086, 5.527)
 Stomach fullness 1.141 (0.277, 4.691) 0.907 (0.181, 4.530) 1.034 (0.223, 4.806)
 Stomach rumbling 0.647 (0.127, 3.288) 0.235 (0.053, 1.044) 0.152 (0.033, 0.705)
 Flaturence 1.357 (0.452, 4.078) 0.963 (0.270, 3.434) 1.306 (0.389, 4.385)
 Sleepy after eating 0.242 (0.067, 0.881) 2.939 (0.704, 12.275) 0.712 (0.155, 3.274)
 Abdominal pain 4.467 (0.333, 59.926) 0.080 (0.006, 1.071) 0.356 (0.055, 2.285)
  Abdominal pain fasting (Bi) 4740.774 (0.000, Inf) 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 0.385 (0.061, 2.434)
  Abdominal pain after eating (Bi) 524.449 (0.000, Inf) 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 0.188 (0.019, 1.892)
  Abdominal pain at upper (Bi) 0.083 (0.000, Inf) 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 0.000 (0.000, Inf)
  Abdominal pain at lower (Bi) 3.600 (0.388, 33.412) 0.222 (0.022, 2.238) 0.800 (0.167, 3.822)
 Hand stiffness 0.650 (0.194, 2.181) 3.021 (0.604, 15.108) 1.963 (0.388, 9.934)
 Lower extremities weakness 5.565 (1.157, 26.752) 0.396 (0.064, 2.432) 2.201 (0.523, 9.265)
 Legs fluctuates 7.336 (1.999, 26.919) 0.586 (0.124, 2.765) 4.296 (1.136, 16.249)
 Leg spasms 2.550 (0.840, 7.743) 2.151 (0.514, 8.998) 5.486 (1.402, 21.468)
 Frost bite 1.469 (0.098, 21.934) 4.616 (0.029, 735.479) 6.778 (0.050, 920.821)
 Heavy menstrual flow (Female, Bi) 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 18125.110 (0.000, Inf) 0.045 (0.000, Inf)
 Less menstrual flow (Female, Bi) 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 0.840 (0.233, 3.025) 0.000 (0.000, Inf)
 Menstruation textile (Female) 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 1.297 (0.176, 9.535) 0.000 (0.000, Inf)
 Menstrual pain (Female) 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 4.351 (0.811, 23.337) 0.000 (0.000, Inf)
 Irregular menstruation (Female, Bi) 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 1.094 (0.348, 3.442) 0.000 (0.000, Inf)
 Delivery (Female, Bi) 0.758 (0.343, 1.675) 0.711 (0.280, 1.804) 0.538 (0.219, 1.324)
 Spontaneous abortion (Female, Bi) 0.514 (0.168, 1.573) 1.764 (0.493, 6.306) 0.906 (0.236, 3.484)
 Induced abortion (Female, Bi) 1.463 (0.330, 6.482) 0.506 (0.105, 2.430) 0.740 (0.184, 2.978)
 Pregnancy toxemia (Female, Bi) 0.849 (0.052, 13.965) 0.711 (0.043, 11.795) 0.604 (0.036, 9.992)
 Abnormal bleeding (Female, Bi) 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 1.445 (0.126, 16.595) 0.000 (0.000, Inf)
Traditional pattern diagnosis
 Excess-Deficiency pattern (Five categories) 9.695 (1.270, 74.040) 1313.121 (79.316, 21739.580) 12696.900 (560.943, 287393.200)
 Cold pattern (Bi) 0.639 (0.175, 2.340) 1.875 (0.463, 7.596) 1.199 (0.347, 4.141)
 Heat pattern (Bi) 0.080 (0.029, 0.226) 3.578 (1.384, 9.247) 0.288 (0.093, 0.888)
Background
 Female sex (Bi) 0.000 (0.000, Inf) 1129.553 (0.000, Inf) 0.118 (0.025, 0.549)
 Age 1.142 (1.089, 1.197) 0.985 (0.953, 1.018) 1.125 (1.073, 1.180)
 Body mass index 1.092 (0.942, 1.266) 1.924 (1.472, 2.516) 2.102 (1.600, 2.763)