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Table 4 Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for each combination of formulas. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated using the R package “pROC”. A value of 1 for the dependent variable (case) denotes the Kampo formula listed in the upper row. A value of 0 for the dependent variable (control) denotes the Kampo formula listed in the bottom row. AUC > 0.5 indicates preferential use of the Case Kampo formula when the patient gave a positive response (or relatively higher response in the case of visual analogue scales) for each item. In contrast, AUC < 0.5 indicates use of the Control Kampo formula when the patient gave a positive response. Items with AUC values over 0.7 or under 0.3 are shown in bold, indicating strongly suggestive results. Item names with (Bi) means binary questions, and without (Bi) means questions with visual analogue scales

From: Predicting Japanese Kampo formulas by analyzing database of medical records: a preliminary observational study

Item name Area under the curve
1 (case)
0 (control)
Hachimijiogan vs Kamishoyosan Kamishoyosan vs Keishikaryukotsuboreito Hachimijiogan vs Keishikaryukotsuboreito
Subjective symptoms
 Appetite
  Appetite loss (Bi) 0.506 0.355 0.361
  Good appetite (Bi) 0.521 0.513 0.535
 Speed of the meal
  Slow speed of the meal (Bi) 0.515 0.496 0.511
  Fast speed of the meal (Bi) 0.502 0.518 0.520
 Difficulty falling asleep 0.610 0.319 0.442
 Arousal during sleep 0.562 0.307 0.372
 Early-morning awakening 0.611 0.242 0.385
 I dream frequently (Bi) 0.424 0.429 0.353
 Single dose of urine large (Bi) 0.497 0.507 0.503
 Single dose of urine low (Bi) 0.555 0.474 0.529
 Difficulty urinating 0.554 0.511 0.565
 Urination pain 0.509 0.500 0.509
 Urine leakage 0.484 0.573 0.552
 Enuresis 0.500 0.500 0.500
 Hard stool (Bi) 0.490 0.535 0.525
 Small and round stool (Bi) 0.400 0.568 0.468
 Soft stool (Bi) 0.442 0.475 0.417
 Diarrhea 0.490 0.456 0.446
 Hard to stool (Bi) 0.546 0.489 0.535
 Hemorrhoid 0.486 0.484 0.474
 Anal prolapse 0.528 0.485 0.513
 Bloody stool 0.489 0.496 0.485
 Taking laxatives (Bi) 0.527 0.505 0.532
 Depressed mood 0.267 0.491 0.291
 Forgetfullness 0.488 0.403 0.393
 Irritated 0.287 0.698 0.496
 Dry skin 0.391 0.527 0.428
 Itchy skin 0.508 0.544 0.564
 Acne 0.457 0.513 0.470
 Blot 0.378 0.524 0.405
 Urticaria 0.442 0.561 0.505
 Wart 0.484 0.498 0.482
 Athlete’s foot 0.542 0.522 0.566
 Brittle nails 0.415 0.541 0.458
 Get tired easily 0.359 0.439 0.296
 Easy to sweat 0.364 0.573 0.449
 Night sweats 0.477 0.503 0.479
 Hot flush 0.286 0.648 0.464
 Heat intolerance 0.426 0.580 0.522
 Cold intolerance 0.497 0.427 0.428
 Attenuation of sexual desire 0.505 0.447 0.449
 Impotence (male) 0.519 0.485 0.504
 Neck stiffness 0.353 0.484 0.356
 Shoulder stiffness 0.402 0.438 0.362
 Back stiffness 0.464 0.418 0.401
 Lower back stiffness 0.469 0.470 0.440
 Facial pain 0.500 0.485 0.485
 Hand pain 0.504 0.459 0.462
 Foot pain 0.605 0.455 0.562
 Shoulder pain 0.452 0.445 0.405
 Back pain 0.481 0.501 0.482
 Hip pain 0.593 0.498 0.586
 Knee pain 0.595 0.564 0.648
 Numbness face 0.478 0.477 0.455
 Numbness hands 0.538 0.489 0.531
 Numbness legs 0.615 0.501 0.617
 Numbness back 0.498 0.481 0.478
 Trembling face 0.489 0.511 0.500
 Trembling hands 0.513 0.447 0.461
 Trembling legs 0.478 0.507 0.485
 Hie general 0.452 0.529 0.482
 Hie hands 0.465 0.439 0.403
 Hie legs 0.550 0.459 0.491
 Hie lower back 0.520 0.460 0.482
 Heat face 0.240 0.595 0.348
 Heat hands 0.446 0.539 0.485
 Heat legs 0.455 0.540 0.494
 Edema face 0.454 0.565 0.513
 Edema hands 0.464 0.570 0.531
 Edema legs 0.458 0.534 0.495
 Headache 0.357 0.604 0.457
 Sluggishness 0.405 0.482 0.400
 Vertigo 0.480 0.495 0.477
 Lightheadedness 0.432 0.514 0.452
 Dandruff 0.544 0.466 0.510
 Hair loss 0.430 0.522 0.449
 Decreased visual acuity 0.457 0.492 0.455
 Eyestrain 0.338 0.549 0.401
 Blurred vision 0.442 0.559 0.500
 Bleary eyes 0.298 0.604 0.411
 Dark circles of the eyes 0.407 0.512 0.425
 Sneezing 0.497 0.560 0.555
 White nasal discharge (Bi) 0.467 0.477 0.444
 Yellow nasal discharge (Bi) 0.508 0.511 0.519
 Post nasal drip 0.496 0.426 0.418
 Stuffy nose 0.533 0.445 0.477
 Nosebleed 0.489 0.481 0.470
 Mouth bitter 0.490 0.468 0.457
 Saliva comes out 0.488 0.522 0.509
 Throat pain 0.482 0.482 0.464
 Throat jams 0.395 0.583 0.481
 Thirsty 0.529 0.493 0.523
 Dry mouth 0.456 0.461 0.420
 Dry lips 0.496 0.423 0.413
 Take water often 0.468 0.522 0.496
 Tinnitus 0.491 0.536 0.527
 Hearing loss 0.637 0.481 0.618
 Cough 0.477 0.509 0.485
 White sputum (Bi) 0.562 0.431 0.492
 Yellow sputum (Bi) 0.517 0.481 0.497
 Asthma 0.476 0.533 0.509
 Shortness of breath 0.512 0.417 0.428
 Palpitation 0.368 0.414 0.280
 Chest pain 0.503 0.466 0.470
 Burp 0.429 0.525 0.457
 Heartburn 0.508 0.522 0.533
 Epigastric jamming discomfort 0.494 0.451 0.445
 Nausea 0.477 0.469 0.448
 Vomiting 0.500 0.485 0.485
 Motion sickness 0.489 0.508 0.500
 Stomach fullness 0.498 0.518 0.513
 Stomach rumbling 0.476 0.408 0.386
 Flaturence 0.537 0.507 0.547
 Sleepy after eating 0.393 0.587 0.481
 Abdominal pain 0.525 0.409 0.438
  Abdominal pain fasting (Bi) 0.519 0.455 0.473
  Abdominal pain after eating (Bi) 0.509 0.455 0.464
  Abdominal pain at upper (Bi) 0.500 0.470 0.470
  Abdominal pain at lower (Bi) 0.526 0.465 0.492
 Hand stiffness 0.460 0.556 0.513
 Lower extremities weakness 0.589 0.450 0.543
 Legs fluctuates 0.669 0.466 0.637
 Leg spasms 0.598 0.541 0.655
 Frost bite 0.487 0.517 0.504
 Heavy menstrual flow (Female, Bi) 0.435 0.565 0.500
 Less menstrual flow (Female, Bi) 0.435 0.489 0.424
 Menstruation textile (Female) 0.370 0.533 0.409
 Menstrual pain (Female) 0.359 0.586 0.439
 Irregular menstruation (Female, Bi) 0.402 0.507 0.409
 Delivery (Female, Bi) 0.466 0.460 0.426
 Spontaneous abortion (Female, Bi) 0.458 0.537 0.495
 Induced abortion (Female, Bi) 0.514 0.472 0.486
 Pregnancy toxemia (Female, Bi) 0.498 0.496 0.494
 Abnormal bleeding (Female, Bi) 0.478 0.507 0.485
Traditional pattern diagnosis
 Excess-Deficiency pattern (Five categories) 0.624 0.856 0.899
 Cold pattern (Bi) 0.479 0.532 0.511
 Heat pattern (Bi) 0.251 0.653 0.404
Background
 Female sex (Bi) 0.324 0.530 0.354
 Age 0.861 0.422 0.839
 Body mass index 0.589 0.878 0.887