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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants

From: Predicting Japanese Kampo formulas by analyzing database of medical records: a preliminary observational study

  Eligible patients Ineligible patients
Number of patients 393 3664
Age at consultation
 Mean ± SD 57.9 ± 16.3 46.2 ± 19.5
 Median (Range) 61 (20–91) 44 (0–95)
 N/A (%) 0 (0) 1 (0.03)
Male: Female 57:336 1073:2591
BMI, kg/m2
 Mean ± SD 21.5 ± 3.3 21.0 ± 3.5
 Median (Range) 21.1 (12.8–35.2) 21.0 (12.1–43.9)
 N/A (%) 0 (0) 2776 (75.8)
Number of subjective symptoms
 Mean ± SD 32.1 ± 10.2 21.0 ± 12.8
 Median (Range) 30 (20–93) 18 (1–99)
 N/A (%) 0 (0) 19 (0.5)
Chief complaints (Top 10 in eligible patients)
 Cold sensations 72 (18.3) 455 (12.4)
 Insomnia 69 (17.6) 259 (7.1)
 Hypertension 62 (15.8) 230 (6.3)
 Constipation 42 (10.7) 199 (5.4)
 Dyslipidemia 36 (9.2) 61 (1.7)
 Depression 29 (7.4) 76 (2.1)
 Dizziness 27 (6.9) 69 (1.9)
 Chronic gastritis 26 (6.6) 102 (2.8)
 Tinnitus 24 (6.1) 76 (2.1)
 Headache 22 (5.6) 166 (4.5)
Excess-Deficiency pattern (%)
 Excess pattern 17 (4.3) 276 (7.5)
 Slight excess pattern 55 (14.0) 396 (10.8)
 Intermediate (between excess and deficiency) pattern 189 (48.1) 1933 (52.8)
 Slight deficiency pattern 79 (20.1) 546 (14.9)
 Deficiency pattern 53 (13.5) 513 (14.0)
Heat-Cold pattern (%)
 Heat pattern 16 (4.1) 210 (5.7)
 Intermediate (neither heat nor cold) pattern 52 (13.2) 1234 (33.7)
 Cold pattern 214 (54.5) 1574 (43.0)
 Tangled heat and cold (both heat and cold) pattern 111 (28.2) 313 (8.5)
  1. Abbreviations: N/A not available; BMI body mass index, SD Standard deviation