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Table 4 Comparison of mean scores per format for entire sample on scale of 0–3 (difference, significance value, effect size).

From: How should risk be communicated to children: a cross-sectional study comparing different formats of probability information

Variable compared Percentage Proportion-word Proportion notation Pie chart Mix
Mean (SD) 2.37 (0.92) 1.92 (1.20) 1.88 (1.28) 2.70 (0.78) 1.29 (1.00)
Verbal label > > > < >
  p = .530 p = .001* p < .001* p = .005 p < .001*
  r = .06 r = .34 r = .35 r = -.27 r = .63
Percentage   > > > >
   p = .005 p = .002* p < 001* p < .001*
   r = .27 r = .30 r = -.34 r = .59
Proportion – word    > < >
    p = .610 p < .001* p < .001*
    r = .05 r = .53 r = .48
Proportion – notation     < >
     p < .001* p < .001*
     r = -.50 r = .41
Pie chart      >
      p = .001*
      r = .72
  1. * Significant at p =< .003 level (Bonferroni correction)