Skip to main content

Table 2 Characteristics of models externally validated

From: Systematic review of prognostic models in traumatic brain injury

Author Derivation sample Validation sample Predictors Outcomes Performance in the validation sample Presentation of a simplified score
Pillai et al. 208 patients from India with severe TBI 26 patients from the same centre 1-oculocephalic reflex
2-motor GCS
3-midline shift
Death or vegetative state Sensitivity (75%)
Specificity (67%)
PPV 50%
No
Signorini et al 372 patients from Scotland with moderate and severe TBI 520 patients from the same centre 1-GCS
2-ISS
3-pupils reactivity and 4-haematoma (CT scan)
Survival at 1 year A.U.R.O.C (0.835)
Error rate (15.2%)
Brier score (0.1160)
Hosmer-Lemeshow
(p < 0.001)
Nomogram
Signorini et al 110 patients from Scotland with moderate and severe TBI 140 patients from the same centre 1-GCS
2-ISS
3-pupils reactivity and 4-haematoma (CT scan)
5-ICP measures
Survival at 1 year Not reported No
Hukkelhoven et al. 134 patients from Netherlands with moderate and severe TBI 180 patients from the same centre 1-age
2-motor GCS
3-pupils reactivity
4-pupillary size
5-hypotension
6-ISS
Raised ICP A.U.R.O.C. (0.50)
Hosmer-Lemeshow
(p = 0.18)
No
Hukkelhoven et al. 275 patients from Netherlands with moderate and severe TBI 250 patients from the same centre 1-age
2-cause of injury
3-pupils reactivity
4-pupillary size
5-hypotension
6-ISS
Surgical removable lesions A.U.R.O.C. (0.67)
Hosmer-Lemeshow
(p = 0.01)
No
Hukkelhoven et al. 2269 patients from 2 trials in high income countries with moderate and severe TBI 796 patients from Europe 1-age
2-motorGCS
3-pupils reactivity
4-hypoxia
5-hypotension
6-CT classification
7-subarachnoid haemorrhage
Death or disability at 6 months A.U.R.O.C. (0.83)
Hosmer-Lemeshow
(p = 0.05)
Score chart
Hukkelhoven et al. 2269 patients from 2 trials in high income countries with moderate and severe TBI 796 patients from Europe and 746 from the United States 1-age
2-motor GCS
3-pupils reactivity
4-hypoxia
5-hypotension
6-CT classification
7-subarachnoid haemorrhage
Death at 6 months A.U.R.O.C. (0.87/0.89)
Hosmer-Lemeshow
(p = 0.42/<0.001)
Score chart