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Table 2 Characteristics of models externally validated

From: Systematic review of prognostic models in traumatic brain injury

Author Derivation sample Validation sample Predictors Outcomes Performance in the validation sample Presentation of a simplified score
Pillai et al. 208 patients from India with severe TBI 26 patients from the same centre 1-oculocephalic reflex 2-motor GCS 3-midline shift Death or vegetative state Sensitivity (75%) Specificity (67%) PPV 50% No
Signorini et al 372 patients from Scotland with moderate and severe TBI 520 patients from the same centre 1-GCS 2-ISS 3-pupils reactivity and 4-haematoma (CT scan) Survival at 1 year A.U.R.O.C (0.835) Error rate (15.2%) Brier score (0.1160) Hosmer-Lemeshow (p < 0.001) Nomogram
Signorini et al 110 patients from Scotland with moderate and severe TBI 140 patients from the same centre 1-GCS 2-ISS 3-pupils reactivity and 4-haematoma (CT scan) 5-ICP measures Survival at 1 year Not reported No
Hukkelhoven et al. 134 patients from Netherlands with moderate and severe TBI 180 patients from the same centre 1-age 2-motor GCS 3-pupils reactivity 4-pupillary size 5-hypotension 6-ISS Raised ICP A.U.R.O.C. (0.50) Hosmer-Lemeshow (p = 0.18) No
Hukkelhoven et al. 275 patients from Netherlands with moderate and severe TBI 250 patients from the same centre 1-age 2-cause of injury 3-pupils reactivity 4-pupillary size 5-hypotension 6-ISS Surgical removable lesions A.U.R.O.C. (0.67) Hosmer-Lemeshow (p = 0.01) No
Hukkelhoven et al. 2269 patients from 2 trials in high income countries with moderate and severe TBI 796 patients from Europe 1-age 2-motorGCS 3-pupils reactivity 4-hypoxia 5-hypotension 6-CT classification 7-subarachnoid haemorrhage Death or disability at 6 months A.U.R.O.C. (0.83) Hosmer-Lemeshow (p = 0.05) Score chart
Hukkelhoven et al. 2269 patients from 2 trials in high income countries with moderate and severe TBI 796 patients from Europe and 746 from the United States 1-age 2-motor GCS 3-pupils reactivity 4-hypoxia 5-hypotension 6-CT classification 7-subarachnoid haemorrhage Death at 6 months A.U.R.O.C. (0.87/0.89) Hosmer-Lemeshow (p = 0.42/<0.001) Score chart