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Table 1 Examples of matching based on PICO elements

From: Concordance between decision analysis and matching systematic review of randomized controlled trials in assessment of treatment comparisons: a systematic review

PICO element Decision analysis Systematic review of RCTs Matching category
Participant (P) “premenopausal women with newly diagnosed hormone responsive breast cancer” [14] “premenopausal women with early breast cancer which was responsive for estrogen receptor” [15] Optimum
“women with breast cancer” [16] “women with early stage breast cancer” [17] Broad
“ high risk women seeking prophylactic mastectomy” [18] “women with invasive breast cancer” [19] Broadest
Intervention (I)/Control (C) “breast conserving surgery” (intervention) and “mastectomy” (control) [16] “breast conserving surgery” (intervention) and “mastectomy” (control) [20] Optimum
“medical ovarian suppression or surgical ovarian suppression” (intervention). [14] “medical ovarian suppression” (intervention) [15] Broad
“conservation therapy (medical and other methods)” (control) [21] “medical therapy” for patients with non-acute coronary artery disease (control) [22] Broad
“surgery” (intervention) [23] “laser excision” in patients with glottic cancer (intervention) [20] Broadest
Outcome (O) “overall survival” [14] “overall survival” [15] Optimum
“complications” [18] “morbidity” [19] Broad
“breast cancer mortality” [24] “all-cause mortality” [25] Broadest