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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Use of handheld computers in clinical practice: a systematic review

Study, country Participants, setting Intervention Comparator Primary outcome Secondary outcome
Berner 2006 USA [13] 59 Internal medicine residents, University outpatient clinic PDA with rule for gastrointestinal risk assessment when prescribing NSAIDS PDA without rule for gastrointestinal risk assessment when prescribing NSAIDS Difference in unsafe NSAID prescriptions Identification of key risk factors for standardised patient case
Bochicchio 2006 USA [14] 12 1st year critical care fellows, University hospital PDA with John Hopkins Antibiotic Guide No PDA, instructed to use written reference guides Difference in mean score for knowledge test Antibiotic decision accuracy
Farrell 2008 Australia [15] 76 nursing students, Medical-surgical wards PDA with pharmacological information and training session No training or PDA Difference in mean score for pharmacology test N/A
Greiver 2005 Canada [18] 18 Family physicians, Family practice (65 patients) PDA with angina diagnosis software Conventional care Appropriate referral for cardiac stress testing at presentation, and nuclear cardiology after cardiac stress testing Referral to cardiologists
Lee 2009 USA [19] 29 registered nurses, Hospital and ambulatory care (1874 patients) PDA with CDSS for obesity diagnosis PDA without CDSS for obesity diagnosis Appropriate obesity related diagnosis Missed obesity related diagnosis
Price 2005 Canada [16] 8 General practitioners, General practice (79 patients) PDA with reminder for 5 preventive measures Software provided after the study Adherence to five guidelines N/A
Roy 2009 France [17] 24 Emergency physicians, 10 emergency departments (1645 patients) PDA with CDSS for pulmonary embolism PDA used for data collection only; Paper based guideline material Appropriate diagnostic strategy for pulmonary embolism Adherence to recommended diagnostic testing Number of tests per patient