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Table 2 Frequency of independence between main diagnosis (MD) and underlying cause of death (UCD) according to age, gender, discharge-death time interval, length of stay, number of hospital stays and category of UCD and relative risks (univariate and multivariate analysis)

From: Automated comparison of last hospital main diagnosis and underlying cause of death ICD10 codes, France, 2008–2009

  In-hospital deaths   Out-of-hospital deaths
  n Independence RR RRa n Independence RR RRa
  289 904      81 688    
Age (years)          
1-14 1 010 5.2% 0.58* 0.57*   154 11.7% 0.59* 0.52*
15-34 3 576 4.8% 0.52* 0.55*   917 24.9% 1.26* 0.87*
35-64 71 556 7.1% 0.78* 0.87*   14 562 21.6% 1.09* 1.10*
65-84 143 413 9.1% 1 1   36 314 19.8% 1 1
>84 70 349 9.7% 1.07* 0.97*   29 741 22.5% 1.14* 0.96*
Ptrend    <.0001 <.0001     0.0961 <.0001
Gender          
Male 158 793 8.8% 1 1   39 582 20.8% 1 1
Female 131 111 8.6% 0.98 0.93*   42 106 21.5% 1.03* 0.98
Discharge-death time interval (months)         
[0-1]       34 678 15.1% 1 1
[1-3]       17 548 20.6% 1.36* 1.31*
[3-6]       17 691 26.8% 1.77* 1.53*
[6-12]       11 771 31.0% 2.05* 1.62*
Ptrend         <.0001 <.0001
Length of last stay (days)          
[0-1] 22 622 3.9% 0.39* 0.33*   8 677 23.5% 1.21* 1.19*
[13] 73 259 6.8% 0.67* 0.60*   15 722 23.2% 1.19* 1.09*
[49] 73 751 9.2% 0.92* 0.87*   20 983 22.0% 1.13* 1.06*
[1029] 89 435 10.1% 1 1   30 028 19.4% 1  
>30 30 837 11.4% 1.13* 1.16*   6 278 17.9% 0.92* 0.98
Ptrend    <.0001 <.0001     <.0001 <.0001
Number of hospital stays within the year before death       
1 96 470 8.6% 0.96* 0.90*   31 150 23.5% 1.30* 1.08*
2-3 105 464 9.0% 1 1   30 037 23.2% 1 1
4-5 46 523 8.8% 0.98 1.08*   11 522 22.0% 0.81* 0.96
>6 41 447 8.0% 0.89* 1.12*   8 979 19.4% 0.72* 1.03
Ptrend    <.0001 <.0001     <.0001 <.0001
Category of UCD          
Neoplasms 122 824 5.4% 1 1   29 807 9.8% 1 1
Neuro-sensorial disease 9 456 11.3% 2.11* 2.33*   5 900 25.0% 2.55* 2.33*
Circulatory disease 71 702 10.1% 1.88* 2.21*   21 872 27.9% 2.84* 2.71*
Respiratory disease 19 894 9.3% 1.74* 1.93*   4 067 23.2% 2.36* 2.28*
Digestive disease 19 796 11.7% 2.18* 2.51*   2 470 29.1% 2.97* 2.85*
External causes 13 126 9.4% 1.74* 2.32*   5 453 30.7% 3.12* 2.71*
Other 33 106 14.9% 2.78* 3.15*   12 119 28.2% 2.88* 2.68*
  1. non-informative UCD excluded.
  2. RRa: adjusted for age. sex. length of stay. number of stays during last year of life. and category of UCD.
  3. *p < 0.05.