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Table 3 Summary of Findings for Decision Coaching (“n” = number of studies)

From: Coaching and guidance with patient decision aids: A review of theoretical and empirical evidence

  Positive Results (p < 0.05) Mixed Results No Difference
Coaching plus a PtDA versus Usual Care (n = 5) - Improved knowledge [6971]
- Decreased mean costs [71, 72]
- Fewer physical limitations to lifestyle activities [72]
- Decreased hysterectomies for more conservative options [72]
- Increased psycho-education rather than medication for schizophrenia [69]
- Increased single embryo transfers compared to double embryo transfer [71]
- Enhanced perceived/preferred involvement in decision making* [69, 71] or no difference in participation [73]
- Either more satisfied with the decision making process* [72] or no difference in satisfaction [73]
- Improved feeling informed subscale* [71], but no difference in total decisional conflict [73]
- Values-choice agreement [70]
- Satisfaction-uncertainty and control levels [71]
- Anxiety or depression [71]
- Uptake of genetic testing [70, 73]
Coaching versus PtDA (n = 4) - Increased values-choice agreement [74]
- Similar improvements in knowledge [7477]
- Increased satisfaction with the decision making process [77]
- Decreased decisional conflict* [74] or no difference [75, 77] - Participation [75]
- Preparation for decision making [75]
- Use of hormones for menopause [74, 75] or uptake of prenatal screening [77]
- Adherence to hormones for menopause [74, 75]
- Anxiety or pregnancy outcomes [77]
Coaching plus a PtDA versus PtDA Alone (n = 4) - Increased participation in decision making [78]
- Decreased mean costs [72]
- Similar improvements in knowledge [70]
  - Values-choice agreement [70]
- Satisfaction with the decision making process [72]
- Uptake of hysterectomy [72], genetic testing [70], or prostate cancer screening [79];
- Health outcomes [72], anxiety or depression [78]