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Table 2 Characteristics of population- and patient-oriented research

From: Patient-centered medicine and patient-oriented research: improving health outcomes for individual patients

Population-oriented research Patient-oriented research
Paradigm: Randomized clinical trials No paradigm: observational and experimental research
Focuses on the “generalization” of results Focuses on the “individualization” of results
Efficacy in average patients Effectiveness in subgroups of patients and individual patients
Absolute efficacy Comparative effectiveness
Identify the percentage of patients who will respond to an intervention Identify which options are more effective for which patients
Evaluation of interventions Evaluation of patients and their diseases
Analysis of homogeneity Analysis of heterogeneity
A posteriori subgroup analysis Subgroups identified a priori
Aggregation: the study of commonalities Disaggregation: the study of differences
Inductive logic Hypothetic-deductive logic
Exploratory observations and confirmatory trials Exploratory trials and confirmatory observations
Minimizes the value of observations, exceptions, and case series Assigns greater value to observations, exceptions, and case series
Distinction between clinical practice and research Integration of clinical practice and research
From bench-to-bedside From bedside-to-bench
Evidence-based medicine Medicine-based evidence