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Table 2 Comparing the results before and after the SMS intervention

From: Effects of and satisfaction with short message service reminders for patient medication adherence: a randomized controlled study

  Variable Before SMS intervention After SMS intervention Improvement P-value
   N % N % %  
        < .001a
Intervention group Delayed doses (Total) 646 84.7c 137 18.0c 78.8 < .001b
  20 ~ 34 y/o 146 90.1 32 19.8 78.1  
  35 ~ 49 y/o 181 79.7 52 22.9 71.3  
  50 ~ 64 y/o 196 85.6 35 15.2 82.2  
   65 y/o 123 84.8 18 12.4 85.4  
Control group Delayed doses (Total) 349 80.2c 187 43.0c 46.4 < .001b
  20 ~ 34 y/o 83 86.5 58 60.4 30.1  
  35 ~ 49 y/o 105 77.8 62 45.9 41.0  
  50 ~ 64 y/o 113 77.4 54 37.0 52.2  
   65 y/o 48 82.8 13 22.4 72.9  
Intervention group Missed doses (Total) 352 46.1c 35 4.6c 90.1 < .001b
  20 ~ 34 y/o 90 55.6 9 5.6 90.0  
  35 ~ 49 y/o 97 42.7 9 4.0 90.7  
  50 ~ 64 y/o 101 44.1 10 4.4 90.0  
   65 y/o 64 44.1 7 4.8 89.1  
Control group Missed doses (Total) 190 43.7c 74 17.0c 61.1 < .001b
  20 ~ 34 y/o 52 54.2 28 29.2 46.2  
  35 ~ 49 y/o 62 45.9 14 10.4 77.4  
  50 ~ 64 y/o 52 35.6 30 20.6 42.3  
   65 y/o 24 41.4 2 3.5 91.7  
  1. a: used chi-square test to examine the difference between groups; b: Used the McNemar’s test to examine the difference between the pre-test and post-test data within the group. c: intervention group% = n/763; control group%=n/435.