Skip to main content

Table 2 Diabetic retinopathy risk predictors identified by LASSO

From: Diabetic retinopathy risk prediction for fundus examination using sparse learning: a cross-sectional study

  Scenario 1 (DE + MH + BP) Scenario 2 (DE + MH + BP + BT) Scenario 3 (DE + MH + BP + BT + UT) Reference No.
  β* Std β β* Std β β* Std β  
Demographics        
  Sex (female) 0.199 0.099      [50]
  Age (years) −0.022 −0.260 −0.007 −0.077 −0.012 −0.146 [42, 43]
  Current smoke 0.216 0.088 0.532 0.218 0.469 0.192 [2, 41]
  Alcohol (>1 serving/week) −0.039 −0.019 −0.159 −0.077 −0.137 −0.066 [48]
  Physical activity (MET h/week) 0.005 0.058      [41]
  BMI (kg/m2) −0.058 −0.197 −0.059 −0.202 −0.082 −0.281 [44]
Medical history        
  Duration of diabetes (years) 0.054 0.376 0.027 0.186 0.027 0.187 [2, 50]
  Diagnosed diabetes 0.242 0.100 0.592 0.244 0.427 0.176 [2]
  Insulin therapy 1.012 0.237 1.117 0.261 0.956 0.224 [45]
  Diagnosed hypertension −0.228 −0.227      [2]
  Drug for hyperlipidemia −0.036 −0.014    −0.028 −0.011 [2, 41]
Blood pressure        
  Diastolic BP (mmHg) −0.007 −0.067 −0.007 −0.066 −0.004 −0.041 [9]
Blood test        
  HbA1c (%)    0.103 0.155 0.054 0.081 [2, 8]
  FPG (mg/dL)    0.009 0.402 0.008 0.339 [2]
  Hemoglobin (g/dL)    −0.230 −0.036 −0.256 −0.040 [41]
  TG (mg/dL)    0.002 0.298 0.002 0.322 [47, 50]
  HDL (mg/dL)    −0.003 −0.030    [47]
  BUN (mg/dL)    0.037 0.177 0.037 0.181 [46]
Urine test        
  Protein (+)      0.141 0.148 [24, 43]
  Glucose (+)      0.442 0.191 [24]
  Ketone (+)      −0.111 −0.036  
  Bilirubin (+)      0.118 0.041  
  Blood (+)      0.096 0.046  
  1. *Regression coefficient of logit operator.
  2. Standardized regression coefficient of logit operator.
  3. BMI Body mass index, BP Blood pressure, BT Blood test, BUN Blood urea nitrogen, DE Demographics, FPG Fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c Glycated hemoglobin, HDL High-density lipoprotein, MH Medical history, TG Triglyceride, UT Urine test.