Visual aid illustrating two equally intense treatment scenarios for patients with UICC stages I to III rectal cancer [] . The results of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by an operation (OP) are shown as pre-operative option (A) on the left, and the results of an OP followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy are shown as post-operative option (B) on the right. While all patients underwent neoadjuvant treatment in option A, only 72% of the patients underwent additional adjuvant treatment, depending on the pathological tumor stage. The relative incidence of death, local recurrence and distant metastasis are displayed in the two upper quadrants and important undesired acute and long-term side effects in the two lower quadrants. The difference of recurrence of the two treatment options is summarized in the central dotted circle followed by a statement about an overall survival benefit.