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Table 4 Difference in framing bias between low and high performance groups for each numeracy measure

From: Health numeracy in Japan: measures of basic numeracy account for framing bias in a highly numerate population

Group (n)a Schwartz-J Lipkus-J9
  Low (119) High (181) Low (139) High (161)
Numeracy score (Median ± IQR) 2 ± 1 3 7 ± 2 9
Difference in rated risk (mean ± SD)b −0.22 ± 0.85 −0.02 ± 0.81 −0.22 ± 0.89 −0.00 ± 0.78
  1. an, number of respondents in each group.
  2. bDifference in rated risk was calculated as the difference between survival-rate frame scores and death-rate frame scores. Scores between subgroups were compared using non-parametric methods, but means are presented because median scores did not show differences between sub-groups.