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Table 2 Association between patient, encounter, ED characteristics and basic health information exchange usage.

From: Use of a health information exchange system in the emergency care of children

  Basic usage
  Unadjusted Adjusted
  OR (95%CI)* OR (95%CI)
Female 0.97 (0.93, 1.01) 0.98 (0.94, 1.02)
Age (years)   
   1 to 5 vs < 1 1.56 (1.48, 1.64) 1.68 (1.58, 1.79)
   6 to 11 vs < 1 1.37 (1.29, 1.46) 1.78 (1.65, 1.91)
   12 to 17 vs < 1 1.21 (1.12, 1.31) 1.54 (1.41, 1.69)
Race/ethnicity   
   African American vs White 1.09 (1.01, 1.18) 1.00 (0.93, 1.08)
   Hispanic vs White 1.03 (0.97, 1.10) 0.98 (0.93, 1.04)
   Other/unknown vs White 0.69 (0.61, 0.77) 0.72 (0.64, 0.81)
Payer   
   SCHIP vs Medicaid 0.79 (0.72, 0.86) 0.93 (0.85, 1.03)
   Charity care vs Medicaid 0.85 (0.83, 0.92) 0.96 (0.92, 1.01)
   Unknown/multiple vs Medicaid 1.57 (1.43, 1.72) 1.48 (1.35, 1.63)
No. of primary care clinic visits   
   1 to 3 vs 0 1.49 (1.41, 1.57) 1.47 (1.39, 1.55)
   ≥ 4 vs 0 1.58 (1.48, 1.67) 1.35 (1.27, 1.44)
No. of emergency depart visits to other facilities   
   1 to 3 vs 0 1.75 (1.68, 1.84) 1.60 (1.52, 1.67)
   ≥ 4 vs 0 2.54 (2.28, 2.84) 2.19 (1.96, 2.45)
Hospitalized 1.12 (1.06, 1.18) 1.33 (1.25, 1.41)
No. of unique diagnosis categories 1.07 (1.05, 1.10) 1.05 (1.02, 1.08)
Chronic condition indicator 1.17 (1.08, 1.28) 1.10 (1.01, 1.20)
Primary diagnosis   
   Infectious & parasitic disease 1.00 (0.90, 1.11) 1.00 (0.90, 1.11)
   Diseases of the nervous system 1.16 (1.06, 1.27) 1.07 (0.97, 1.17)
   Diseases of the respiratory system 1.06 (0.98, 1.27) 1.01 (0.93, 1.10)
   Diseases of the digestive system 0.95 (0.85, 1.06) 0.99 (0.88, 1.11)
   Diseases of the genitourinary system 1.13 (0.99, 1.29) 1.11 (0.97, 1.27)
   Diseases of the skin 1.21 (1.09, 1.35) 1.19 (1.07, 1.52)
   Diseases of the musculoskeletal 1.22 (1.03, 1.44) 1.28 (1.08, 1.52)
   Injury & poisoning 1.06 (0.97, 1.16) 1.15 (1.06, 1.26)
   Ill-defined conditions 1.02 (0.94, 1.10) 1.01 (0.93, 1.09)
   All other categories§ 1.00 1.00
Unfamiliar patient|| 0.47 (0.45, 0.48) 0.46 (0.44, 0.48)
Busier than average day 0.64 (0.62, 0.67) 0.65 (0.62, 0.67)
Random part   
Variance (location)   15.84 (2.93, 85.65)
Variance (patient)   0.28 (0.24, 0.32)
  1. * Odds ratio & 95% confidence interval
  2. non-Hispanic
  3. In past twelve months
  4. § Including: neoplasms; endocrine, metabolic & immunity; diseases of the blood; mental disorders; diseases of the circulatory system; factors influencing health status
  5. || Not seen at the same location in the past year
  6. Ratio of total number of same day encounters divided by the previous year's average number of daily encounters by month and day of week