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Table 1 Characteristics of encounters at emergency departments among children included in the Integrated Care Collaboration, 1/1/2006-6/30/2009.

From: Use of a health information exchange system in the emergency care of children

  All encounters
n = 179,445
Encounters without HIE usage
n = 163,859
Encounters with basic usage
n = 12,910
Encounters with novel usage
n = 2,676
Female, % 47.9 48.1 46.2 46.6
Age, %     
   < 1 year 21.6 21.8 19.1 23.5
   1 to 5 years 44.3 44.5 53.7 51.6
   6 to 11 years 18.9 18.9 19.0 15.7
   12 to 17 years 15.2 15.8 8.2 9.2
Race/ethnicity, %     
   White non-Hispanic 19.1 19.6 13.5 13.0
   African American 12.8 12.7 13.2 13.5
   Hispanic 60.5 60.0 69.8 69.4
   Other/unknown 8.0 3.4 4.0 7.6
Payer, %     
   Medicaid 66.9 66.7 69.8 69.1
   CHIP 5.3 5.3 4.5 2.8
   Charity care 24.2 24.5 20.6 21.9
   Unknown/multiple recorded 3.7 3.5 5.1 6.1
Utilization history*     
   Clinic visits, %     
0 78.4 79.4 69.3 59.4
1 to 3 12.1 116. 16.5 20.2
≥ 4 9.5 9.0 14.2 20.4
   Emergency department visits, %     
0 78.2 78.8 70.3 78.8
1 to 3 19.6 19.1 26.0 19.0
≥ 4 2.3 2.1 3.8 2.2
   Hospitalized, % 14.2 13.9 17.0 20.4
Charlson index, %     
   0 81.5 82.1 76.2 72.5
   1 17.0 16.5 21.6 24.4
   ≥ 2 1.5 1.4 2.2 3.1
Chronic condition indicator, % 4.6 4.5 5.7 6.1
Primary diagnosis, %     
   Infectious & parasitic disease 5.7 5.7 5.9 6.5
   Neoplasms 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
   Endocrine, metabolic & immunity 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5
   Diseases of the blood 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4
   Mental disorders 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.3
   Diseases of the nervous system 10.7 10.6 11.8 11.0
   Diseases of the circulatory system 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1
   Diseases of the respiratory system 22.9 22.9 23.8 23.7
   Diseases of the digestive system 4.4 4.3 4.4 5.2
   Diseases of the genitourinary system 2.7 2.7 2.7 3.1
   Complications of pregnancy/childbirth 0.7 0.8 0.1 0.5
   Diseases of the skin 5.2 5.1 5.7 4.4
   Diseases of the musculoskeletal 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.4
   Congenital anomalies 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0
   Conditions originating in the perinatal period 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.0
   Injury & poisoning 15.5 15.8 13.9 9.1
   Ill-defined conditions 23.1 23.0 23.2 27.2
   Factors influencing health status 5.9 5.9 5.9 6.8
Unfamiliar patient, % 52.5 54.4 33.9 16.8
Busier than average day§, % 59.0 60.2 44.4 56.5
  1. * Not seen at the same facility in the past 12 months
  2. Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality's body system indicator categories
  3. Not seen at the same facility in the past 12 months
  4. §Ratio of the total number of same day encounters divided by the previous year's average number of daily encounters by month and day of week greater than 1.0