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Table 2 Design and validity criteria of twelve studies that met entry criteria

From: A systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of physical examination for the detection of cirrhosis

FIRST AUTHOR YEARS OF STUDY ENROLLMENT N DESIGN INDEPENDANCE OF MEASUREMENTS* APPLICATION OF BIOPSY
Schenker 1958–1959 61 Prospective 2 All
Nakamura 1951–1961 52 Retrospective 2 All
Rankin NS 100 Prospective 1 All
Czaja NS 101 Prospective 1 All
Cozzolino NS 213 Retrospective 4 All
Hay CRM 1977–1986 35 Retrospective 2 All
Lashner 1977–1981 94 Retrospective 1 All
Hay JE 1984–1987 47 Prospective 1 All
Tinè 1984–1985 277 Prospective 1 All
Marmo 1986–1990 412 Retrospective 2 All
Zoli NS 200 Case-control 2 Control patients not biopsied
Hamberg 1968–1971 303 Prospective 2 All
  1. *1, test measured independant of reference standard, and reference standard measured independant of test, 2, test measured independant of reference but not vice versa, 3, reference standard measured independant of test, but not vice versa, 4, neither test nor reference standard measured independantly of each other. NS, not stated.